1. The Advantages of the Utilitarian Philosophy in Business The utilitarian philosophy is more acceptable for the modern business as it can satisfy the needs of the stakeholders, despite the fact that either side may receive less profit. 30 videos - one minute each - relate recent scandals in the news and give ethical insights.  Des Bieler, Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/.  The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact, and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field.  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access. The word total is important here: if you act ethically according to utilitarianism, youâre not maximizing yourhappiness, but the total happiness of the whole human race. Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Act utilitarianism often demonstrates the concept that “the end justifies the means”—or it's worth it. Customers who fly in first or business class pay a much higher rate than those in economy seats, but they also get more amenities—simultaneously, people who cannot afford upper-class seats benefit from the economy rates.  Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence. UTILITARIANISM ETHICS 2 Utilitarianism Ethics Utilitarianism Theory of Ethics Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that responsibly distinguishes rights from wrong by potentially looking at the outcome of the events. a. Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016. Some take the view that the NFL has acted like the tobacco industry did when it was confronted with lawsuits seeking to prove to juries that smoking caused cancer.  Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). A collection of one-of-a-kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. Ethics â Four Branches (3) Metaethics = The study of ethical terms, statements and judgements. A hard-core utilitarian would say that outcomes are all that matter. In today's Western democracies, policymakers are generally proponents of free markets and some base level of government interference in the private lives of citizens so as to assure safety and security. Empirical research supports the notion that allowing children to engage in dangerous forms of play is key to their optimal development. Is your opinion altered by the fact that the scientist quoted above is the neurologist for the Michigan State University football team? The main idea of utilitarian ethics is: secure the greatest good for the greatest number.  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players, Neurosurgery 57(4): 719-726 (2005). If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? The more expensive upper-class seats help to ease the financial burden that the airline created by making room for economy-class seats. Utilitarianism In Business Ethics. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). In act utilitarianism any action is permissible given that it increases pleasure for the greatest number of people and a successful business does exactly this.  Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg, Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI, Injury Prevention, at https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full; Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru, League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth (2013).  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle. In economics, utility is the pleasure or satisfaction that people derive fromconsuming a product or service. Kagan suggests that such a procedure might be justified on the grounds that The mining of these amber specimens in Myanmar is the center of many legitimate and blackmarket sales to university researchers and private collectors alike. A study of former high school and college football players found that RHI exposure predicted later-life apathy, depression, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. â¢ Analysis of the language, concepts and methods of resoning in ethics. It paid more than $750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players. See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005);  Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015).  Janine Armstrong, NFL Concussion Protocol Explained: How Does It Work?, Sportcasting, Oct. 13, 2019, at https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/. Utilitarianism is a teleological ethical theory based on the idea that an action is moral if it causes the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). Bry believes that this will never happen.  Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2. 4.  Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018).  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). , If only one thing is clear about the current science surrounding sports-related concussions (SRCs) and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science.  Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is “brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head traumas.” Repetitive head impacts (RHIs) can cumulatively lead to CTE and early death, even though no single RHI results in a concussion. Some of these are high impacts comparable to those experienced in high school and college games.  In addition, evidence indicates (and is consistent with the self-serving bias) that industry funding of research often influences results. Steve Almond argues that “a civilian leisure class … has created, for its own entertainment, a caste of warriors too big and strong and fast to play a child’s game without grievously injuring one another.”. However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. In the workplace, though, utilitarian ethics are difficult to achieve. A policy issue? A 2016 study found no elevated risk of suicide in a population of players with at least five years in the league. Do you agree? Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? Employees and Employers. For example, assume a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. Is Getting Soft. Which ones?  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014. Act utilitarianism makes the most ethical actions possible for the benefit of the people.  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? Tom would do this because he is promoting his well being above everyone elseâs (QUT, 2011). Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football? In economics, we can replace the terms âsatisfaction and pleasureâ with âvalue for money.â Economists use utility to measure pleasure or happiness and how it relates to the decisions we make. Another study of 35 former NFL players over age 50 who had sustained multiple concussions during their careers found no significant association between the length of careers, the number of concussions, and their level of cognitive function later in life. Why or why not. An example of act utilitarianism could be when pharmaceutical companies release drugs that have been governmentally approved, but with known minor side effects because the drug is able to help more people than are bothered by the side effects. Therefore, there is no correct way to treat employees.  Many researchers in the area recently published an article saying: Contrary to common perception, the clinical syndrome of CTE has not yet been fully defined. Why or why not? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020); Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole. This is one of the limitations of utilitarianism. If so, how would you go about guarding against it have a deleterious impact? Suicide rates among NCAA football players are the highest among all sports, but they are substantially lower than the general population age 18-22 or college students in that age range. For example, say a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. A 2017 study found CTE in 21% of donated brains of deceased high school football players. Our society allows people to voluntarily choose to undertake many risky professions, including coal miners, fire jumpers, soldiers, underwater oil rig welders, and others. High school athletes are reluctant to report concussions. In business contexts, utilitarianism implies an obligation for businesses to do what they can to act in a way that maximizes happiness and minimizes suffering. Utilitarianism is a section or a part of the consequentialism theory. Explain. It addresses the meaning of ethical terms such as right, duty, obligation, justification, morality, responsibility.  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. In utilitarian ethics, there are no shades of gray—either something is wrong or it is right. Utilitarianism in business can lead to a bottom-line mentality in which decisions are based on achieving the greatest good for the organization as it pertains to the greatest number of stakeholders, including shareholders and all others affected by the actions of the organization The outcome is the determining factor, not the intent of the actors or whether people are treated humanely. Relatedly, should fans of the game be ashamed of themselves? Utilitarianism promotes "the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people.". Why or why not? Would you prevent kids under 14 from playing tackle football? Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Another study found that greater RHI exposure correlated with higher levels of plasma t-tau (a biomarker for CTE) in symptomatic former NFL players as compared to the study’s control group. Utilitarianism is a moral theory, which works as a form of consequentialism helps individuals to assess whether an action is good or bad. Despite their heightened susceptibility to concussions, youth football players rarely sustain concussions because they are lighter and collide with less force than older players.  Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). Explain. In a study of 14,000 NFL players, researchers found that even head impacts insufficient to cause concussions can mount up over the years, leading to CTE and premature death.  Atheendar S. Venkataramani et al, Association Between Playing American Football and Long-term Mortality, JAMA, 319(8): 800-806 (2018).  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. "The greatest good for the greatest number" is a maxim of utilitarianism. 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile. Explain. But few would consider it an acceptable course of action, let alone the most ethical one. Utilitarianism can be used in any business decision that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but also financially) and minimize negative ones. How do the tau clumps relate to the clinical syndrome—do the lesions fully explain the mood and memory problems? A 2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). Myanmar is a small southeast Asian country that contains about 130 diverse ethnic groups recognized by the government. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved.  David W. Lawrence et al., Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2021-2014, Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2015:3(5):2325967115583653.  Robert F. Heary et al., Is Youth Football Safe? Rule utilitarianism is put in place to benefit the most people by using the fairest methods possible. Support your position with data and facts. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563.  Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. A labor union is an organization that represents the collective interests of workers in negotiations with employers. (Probably not; other kinds of brain abnormalities, such as inflammation or damage to neural wiring from head injuries, may play a role.)”. Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. Are the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players? Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. These are the theoryâs central advantages: Clarity and simplicity. 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