pléiades satellite agility

That is why a frame correction is scheduled at system or satellite level, in order to compensate for all the uncertainties due to ground conditions or to launch. STR measures the direction of 12 stars to estimate a 3 axis attitude at a frequency of 8Hz. design solutions for Pleiades are presented for the satellite (mechanical and thermal overall concept), the instrument, and then the bus. It contains a large amount of bright nebulous material and several hundred stars, of which six or seven can be seen by the unaided eye and have figured prominently in the myths and literature of many cultures. In this way, the complete ground station visibility is used to downlink imagery. On Jan. 29, 2001, an intergovernmental agreement (memorandum of understanding) was signed during the Turin meeting between the heads of government of Italy (Guiliano Amato) and France (Lionel Jospin). The Pleiades satellite system … The objective is to provide high-resolution multispectral imagery with high geo-location accuracy. Watch video Pleiades-1B satellite launch. Some South American Indians use the same word for ”Pleiades” and ”year.” The cluster was first examined telescopically by Galilei Galileo, who found more than 40 members. A Pleiades Neo satellite. Figure 40: Variance of the radiometric noise computed on steady-mode image (image credit: CNES). Each Pleiades satellite is capable of targeting images along any ground direction within 47° of vertical viewing position, with very low maneuvers durations between two consecutive images. Each spacecraft has a mass of 120 kg. Built by prime contractor Astrium for the French space agency, CNES, Pléiades were compact, hexagonal-shaped spacecraft with a mass of only 970 kilograms, optimized for operational agility and image location accuracy. 2, 2004, Toulouse, France, 58) Christophe Renard, Didier Dantes, Claude Neveu, Jean-Luc Lamard, Matthieu Oudinot, Alex Materne, “From SED HI Concept to Pleiades FM Detection Unit Measurements,” Proceedings of the 7th ICSO (International Conference on Space Optics) 2008, Toulouse, France, Oct. 14-17, 2008, 59), 60), 61) S. Baillarin, J. Gasperl, C. Dabin, C. Panem, B. Chausserie-Lapree, J.-P- Gleyzes, P. Kubik, C. Lathry, P. Floissac, E. Hillairet, “Remote Sensing Image Ground Segment Interoperability: PLEIADES-HR case study,” Proceedings of IGARSS 2006 and 27th Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Denver CO, USA, July 31-Aug. 4, 2006, 62) Simon Baillarin, Laurent Lebegue, Philippe Kubik, “Pleiades-HR System Qualification: A Focus on Ground Processing and Image Products Performances, a few months before launch,” Proceedings of IGARSS 2009 (IEEE International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium), Cape Town, South Africa, July 12-17, 2009, 63) A. Gleyzes, “Ground segment and products,” ORFEO Seminar, Paris, Aril 2, 2003, URL:, 64) C. Panem, F. Bignalet-Cazalet , S. Baillarin, “Pleiades-HR System Products Performance after in-orbit Commissioning Phase,” Proceedings of the 22nd Congress of ISPRS (International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing), Melbourne, Australia, Aug. 25 - Sept. 1, 2012, URL:, 65) C. Dabin, D. Giacobbo, A. Meygret, “Ground Segment Interoperability in the GSCB Missions, Pleiades & SPOT,” GSCB Workshop, June 18-19, 2009, ESA/ESRIN Frascati, Italy, URL:, 66) M. Eugenia Forcada, H. Laur, B. Hoersch, J. Martin, P. Goryl, G. Ottavianelli, G. Buscemi, S. Badessi, “ESA Missions and Sentinels ground segment interoperability,” GSCB Workshop, June 18-19, 2009, ESA/ESRIN Frascati, Italy, URL:, 67) “Ground Segment Coordination Body (GSCB),” 2nd Plenary Workshop 2009, June 18-19, 2009, ESA/ESRIN Frascati, Italy, URL:, 68) Jolyon Martin, R. Smillie, “DAIL Implementation,” 2nd Plenary Workshop 2009, June 18-19, 2009, ESA/ESRIN Frascati, Italy, URL:, 69) P. G. Marchetti, Y. Coene, “HMA Standardisation Status,” 2nd Plenary Workshop 2009, June 18-19, 2009, ESA/ESRIN Frascati, Italy, URL:, 70) Philippe Kubik, Laurent Lebègue, Sébastien Fourest, Jean-Marc Delvit, Françoise de Lussy, Daniel Greslou, Gwendoline Blanchet, “First in-flight results of Pleiades-1A innovative methods for optical calibration,” Proceedings of the ICSO (International Conference on Space Optics), Ajaccio, Corsica, France, Oct. 9-12, 2012, URL:, 71) Gwendoline Blanchet, Laurent Lebègue, Sébastien Fourest, Christophe Latry, Florence Porez-Nadal, Sophie Lacherade, Carole Thiebaut, “Pleiades-HR Innovative Techniques for Radiometric Image Quality Commissioning,” Proceedings of the 22nd Congress of ISPRS (International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing), Melbourne, Australia, Aug. 25 - Sept. 1, 2012, URL:, 72) “Pleiades: towards a new radiometric model of the Moon?,” CNES, Nov. 2013, URL:, 73) Sophie Lachérade, Ouahid Aznay, Bertrand Fougnie, “POLO (Pleiades Orbital Lunar Observations) - Intensive Study of the Moon and Comparison to ROLO Mode,” 22nd CALCON Technical Conference, August 2013, Logan, UT, USA, URL: But many parameters can be modelled and calibrated, either during on-ground validation tests or during in-flight operations. In the same timeframe, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) performed also studies of a new program under the name of COSMO-SkyMed. Indeed, studies in close interaction with public sector which answer to the requirements of the Ministry of Ecology specified in the Plan d’Applications Satellitaires, but also to other Ministries Requirements (Internal Affairs, Agriculture). Pleiades satellite swath width is 20 km. • January 2013: The Pleiades-1A spacecraft is operating nominally in 2013. The COME output data rate is nominally 465 Mbit/s on three channels at 155 Mbit/s each. Several AMETHIST calibration campaigns were performed during the commissioning phase, over a large collection of landscapes that mix Earth, ocean surfaces and clouds in order to get a large set of pixels at different radiance levels. The shutter is placed behind the primary mirror to protect only the tertiary mirror and the detection cavity. Pléiades 1A was launched on December 17, 2011, as the first civilian satellite of Europe with 50 cm ground sampling distance (GSD) in the panchromatic band. Figure 31: Functional block diagram of the HiRI instrument (image credit: TAS). Pleiades-HR is a two-spacecraft constellation of CNES (Space Agency of France), representing a long-term engagement with the introduction of advanced technologies in Earth observation capabilities. 7), • Astrium GEO-Information Services (see Table 4) is the official distributor of the Pleiades high-resolution commercial imagery products. To ensure a balanced power budget over one day, the satellite points its arrays towards the sun before and after every imaging sequence. The Pléiades tasking plan are refreshed and uploaded three times per day, allowing for last minute requests and the ability to utilize up-to-the-minute weather forecasts.[7]. The geometric model parameters are estimated in two steps. Most of them are French but there are also some Belgian partners. Individual user requests was answered in record time, thanks to multiple programming plans per day and a state-of-the-art image processing chain. Given the dual nature of this system, two types of access are defined to schedule the satellites’ tasks: - The Defense channel used by Ministry of Defense beneficiaries for High Priority Defense programming requests. Figure 38: Schematic of the steady-mode guidance principle (image credit: CNES). A constellation of 4 ELINT (Electronic Intelligence) spacecraft of CNES/DGA, France. • The Pleiades-1A spacecraft is in the commissioning phase in early 2012 (the commissioning phase is led by CNES). Flight deployment sequence (Figure 11): 24) 25), - The Pleiades-HR1 (primary payload) was deployed first after 55 minutes at an altitude of ~694 km. (image credit: CNES Distribution Astrium/SPOT Image), Figure 17: Re-floating operation of the Costa Concordia. The instrument architecture chosen is organized around a central plane structure supporting the primary mirror, the tertiary mirror, the plane mirror (MR), and a central cylinder that supports the secondary mirror. Table 7: Overview of the SEDHI detection electronics. .. ), • Projects still in demonstration but very mature (e.g. Introduction 1.1. B1= 510-590 (green), 31), • Sept. 19, 2013: The 50,000 ton Italian cruise ship, Costa Concordia, which ran aground on January 13, 2012 due to error made by its Captain was righted after massive salvage efforts by a team of engineers and mariners. To reduce the in-flight operations, the so-called AMETHIST method has been processed for the first time to be able to compute the parameters of the radiometric model in case of non-linear behavior. 7). About 150,000 km2 are planned to be imaged by Pleiades for PUTC until the end of 2013. 800 km wide ground strip, covering 200 km in 11 s or 800 km in 25 s, including stabilization time. The structure is completed by four vertical struts at each angle of the satellite and by four lateral panels made of alloy honeycomb, which concur to the lateral stiffness. Contents iii Contents 1 Pléiades Constellation 1 1.1 Flexibility, Agility and Availability ‘The right information at the right time’ 3 1.2 4Acquisition Capacity 2.4 Radiometric Processing Level 25 2.4.1 Basic Radiometric Processing 25 2.4.2 Reflectance Radiometric Processing 25 2.4.3 Display Radiometric Processing 26 1.2.4 Stereoscopic Cover Capabilities 5 This model can be handled easily in the Fourier domain where the MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) plays a major role. High Resolution Multispectral Satellite Image Data Pleiades acquisition capacity and exceptional agility maximise the number of Images of a given Area Of Interest, so more requests can be satisfied on the same pass. The instrument includes also an internal shutter to protect it from sun radiation in non-operational phases such as launch, attitude acquisition, or safe modes. Pléiades – Resolution: 50cm. Thus, non-linear normalization coefficients can be computed by a histogram matching method. This agility coupled with particularly dynamic image acquisition programing make the Pleiades system very responsive to specific user requirements. The Pléiades constellation is composed of two very-high-resolution optical Earth-imaging satellites. The X-band antenna employs a corrugated horn (omni-directional) with a 64º aperture. ). - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates. Only the axes perpendicular to the boresight axis are used to improve the accuracy. 28). It may take a long time to get the required scenes with no cloud, whilst atmospheric corrections need simultaneous measurements that are not always possible. 47). Extensive use of existing state-of-the-art technologies is made regarding such items as: a) camera alignment procedures, b) telescope thermal control and mechanical assembly principles, c) video processing techniques. Three days after the launch, the Pleiades satellite MTF was computed thanks to images of stars in the Pleiades constellation, as a sign of destiny. Fiwre la: Pleiades panchromatic image of Melbourne, Australia n December 16, 201 1, the Plei- ades-l A was launched successfully in orbit via a Russian Soyuz ST rocket out of French Guiana. They provide total coverage of the Earth’s surface with a repeat cycle of 26 days. Wide-field, superspectral, hyperspectral and thermal (TIR) system observation capabilities are options for future Pleiades implementations (with launches well beyond 2009). Pléiades mission overview The Pleiades project was undertaken, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES), as part of an intergovernmental agreement setting out … 31): - to ensure a good reactivity of the system in order to satisfy the urgent needs, - to minimize scheduling conflicts within the dual use framework, - to acquire image in any direction following, for example, coastlines or river routes as so to optimize programming for instance in a crisis case (flooding, tsunami, etc. The POLO data set (Pleiades Orbital Lunar Observations) was born: over 1000 images of the Moons acquired over 6 months for viewing angles varying from -115º to +115º (0º corresponding to the full Moon, 180º, to the new Moon). An in-depth work of user needs assessments in eight domains (sea and coastline, risks and humanitarian aid, cartography and urban planning, geophysical hazards, hydrology, forestry, agriculture and defense) has given rise to a large number of feasibility studies from 2006 to 2011. The GEO-Information Services division will offer: • A one-stop shop for data from the SPOT-4 and -5 missions, from the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellites, from FormoSat-2, and from the Pleiades constellation. Figure 28: Overview of elements in the integrated detection unit (image credit: TAS), Figure 29: Illustration of the focal plane assembly (image credit: CNES), Figure 30: Views of the Pleiades FPA (top and bottom faces), image credit TAS. ), • Projects of interest for institutional actors whatever their technical maturity is: research, Research & Development,demonstration (e.g. 54) 55) 56), Figure 26: Illustration of the FPA (image credit: (TAS). The civilian data distribution is delegated to Astrium Geo-Information Services (formerly Spot Image) through a Public Service Delegation: 40% of the resources of the system are reserved for institutional users of the cooperative countries for no-commercial activities. Instead of using the agility capabilities to acquire contiguous imagery, the same scene is acquired with two (or three) different view angles as shown in Figure 32. (image credit: CNES), Figure 14: Three pictures on the Mecca ”tower clock” acquired by Pléiades 1B every 90 s in a single pass to see the minutes needle moving ! 57) 58). Phased in 180º co-planar orbits, the twin satellites have daily revisits over most locations on Earth. Like its twin, orthorectified imagery is standard and several tasking options are available. - Civil agencies of the French government have access to 40% of the remaining Pleiades output, with Astrium Geo-Information Services claiming 60%. During the satellite development, the useful parameters of the three image quality models are identified and at least one dedicated calibration procedure has to be defined and validated before launch thanks to simulated images. DORIS is the CNES tracking system, based on measurements between the satellite and dedicated ground stations at two frequencies (400 MHz and 2 GHz). MS array assembly: 5 x 1500 (7500 pixels in cross-track) pixel size: 52 µm, 290 Mpixel/s (total) or about 700 Mbit/s per detector; or 3.5 Mbit/s (max), 12 bit per pixel (correlated dual sampling), 1 m (with ground control points), 20 m without GCP (99.7%), 10 m (90%), <0.9 pixel Pan over 12 s with a time linear error model (with GCPs), 4.5 Gbit/s (max), 465 Mbit/s in 3 x 155 Mbit/s X-band channels, Wavelet compression algorithm with an average compression factor of 4, ~ 195 kg (< 14 service electronics), ~ 400 W, L < 1594 mm • June 26, 2012 marked the end of the Image Quality in-flight commissioning. All these calibration methods are very demanding in dedicated images of specific sites, because they may need a lot of images to make an accurate least-square estimation possible, and because it is not easy to get cloud-free images over these sites. • The resolution model is used to master how details are filtered by the imaging chain, and involves a convolution model by the point-spread function. All source data are compressed prior to on-board (mass memory of 600 Gbit EOL). The latter information is enhanced data, compared to the “a priori” one, because it contains the computed Star Tracker data. A dedicated supporting truss structure ensures the instrument interface with respect to the bus. • A wide range of other satellite and aerial data. Looking for alternate methods that need less usage of ground references is therefore an issue of importance. Chile's SSOT satellite is not visible because it is inside the adapter's central cylinder. These activities cover many topics gathered in two families : radiometric and geometric image quality. • In August 2012, Pleiades-1A has already acquired more than 10,000 images, the system is very robust and the availability of the satellite is excellent. The compressed data are stored in SSR (Solid State Recorder) with a capacity of 600 Gbit (EOL). The Pléiades system is designed for a range of very-high-resolution (VHR, panchromatic: 50 cm), remote sensing applications. Figure 22: Image of Bora Bora Island in Polynesia observed by Pleiades-1A on January 3, 2012 (image credit: CNES) 46), • The Pleiades-1A satellite imager captured the first panchromatic satellite images 3 days after its successful launch from the Kourou launch site (French Guiana) via a Russian Soyuz ST rocket on December 16, 2011. More than 500 Pleiades acquisitions have been requested by users. 1) Astrium Geo- Information Services (formerly SPOT Image) serves the civilian clients. coastline detection and characterization, scrublands detection for fire prevention. Both the space and the ground segment have been designed to provide information in record time, offering daily revisit capacity to any point on the globe and outstanding acquisition capabilities to meet the full spectrum of civil and military requirements. The long-term HMA goal are rapid and reliable access to time-sensitive information is a significant strategic resource for any community. after lift-off at an altitude of 610 km. This agility coupled with particularly dynamic image acquisition programming make the Pléiades system very responsive to specific user requirements. Pléiades-HR 1A and Pléiades-HR 1B provide the coverage of Earth's surface with a repeat cycle of 26 days. - The 4 ELISA satellites (secondary payloads) were released at ~ 700 km, 59 minutes after lift-off. A cluster of four CMG actuators is being used, positioned in a pyramid configuration. Astrium Geo-Information Services takes over the spacecraft operations of the civil channel with an exclusive license once each Pleiades satellite has been commissioned. Each TDI detector outputs data at 58 Mpixel/s (or 290 Mpixel/s total), which amounts to a data rate of about 700 Mbit/s per detector (or 3.5 Gbit/s total in worst case). The radiometric activities dealt with the following main topics: - MTF assessment and refocusing operations, - Onboard compression bit rate optimization, • In early June 2012, all the calibrations were performed; the precise measurement of the performances are still ongoing satisfactorily: the end of the Image Quality Commissioning Phase is scheduled for the end of June 2012. The high output data rate of a MVP (up to 1.2 Gbit/s) is transmitted downstream through 2 LNTHD (Liaison Numérique Très Haut Débit), which are serial integrated digital interfaces. Pleiades-1B Satellite Sensor (0.5m) Since the beginning of 2013, Pleiades is fully operational in the International Charter “space and major disasters” process . • The commissioning phase ended on March 2, 2012. Ground tests are also mandatory to check the right signs of all the signed data : for example, the right sign of the TDI line transfer is compared to the expected velocity of the scene due to the satellite motion. Spot Image and Infoterra joined forces within Astrium Geo-Information Services to offer a consolidated product and services portfolio under the Astrium brand. Starting with the first launch in 2009, the Pleiades program will follow the SPOT program satellite series services, with the following overall objectives: • Provision of an optical high-resolution panchromatic (0.7 m) and multispectral (2.8 m) imagery with high quality product standards in terms of resolution, MTF (0.2 at system level), and a high image location accuracy, • Global coverage and a daily observation accessibility to any point on Earth, • Service provision of so-called “level-2 products” to customers consisting of a panchromatic image with a merged multispectral image orthorectified on a DTM (Digital Terrain Matrix), • Provision of stereo imagery (up to 350 km x 20 km or 150 km x 40 km) and mosaic imagery of size up to 120 km x 120 km, • More than 250 images/day are expected from each spacecraft of the constellation, • The constellation is required to support risk management support services in terms of observation coverage (this requires an agile S/C design, a responsive operational concept, and a sufficient ground segment). The project team can manage the resource sharing during the commissioning phase but the system unavailability during the operational mission must be strictly minimized. Pléiades 1A and 1B are the newest high-res optical imaging satellites, operating as a constellation in the same orbit, phase 180° apart. When SPOT-7 is launched in 2014, there will be 2 x 2 satellites, a true constellation with all spacecraft in the same orbital plane, coherently operated (90° one from the other on the same orbit) through a single interface. 26) 27), Orbit: Sun-synchronous phased orbits (180º phasing, 14 and 15/26 rev./day), altitude = 694 km, inclination = 98.2º, local equator crossing time on a descending node at 10:30 hours. The basic data products of Pleiades are level 0 and level 1 imagery (up to orthorectified imagery). Figure 15: Pleiiades constellation coverage of Burundi in 4 weeks (image credit: CNES, Ref. Figure 21: Pleiades-1A image of Melbourne acquired during commissioning (image credit: CNES, Ref. As a global, integrated company, the GEO-Information division of Astrium Services implemented this new organization with a single vision in mind: to better respond to the needs of customers. The flight was designated as VS02 (Vehicle Soyuz 02) in the Arianespace launcher family numbering system. The new capabilities offered by PLEIADES-HR agility allowed to imagine new methods of image calibration and performance assessment. Calibration methods of the Pleiades program: For an earth observing satellite with no on-board calibration source like Pleiades, the commissioning phase is a critical quest of well-characterized earth landscapes and ground patterns that have to be imaged by the camera in order to compute or fit the parameters of the viewing models. After a pre-processing, that globally shifts each column of the raw image, an image is obtained that contains all needed information. B3= 775-915 (NIR), 65 cm aperture diameter, focal length of 12.905 m, f/20, TMA optics. The camera design employs a pushbroom imaging concept. Figure 37: AMETHIST acquisition principle (image credit: CNES). - To perform calibrations on stars or moon images or using “exotics” guidance methods. 43). B2= 620-700 (red), • It implements and oversees the periodic calibration function of the imaging instrument, for the benefit of all the users. One MVP is able to process up to 10 CCD outputs, at a maximum pixel rate of 10 Mpixel/s. The success of the Pleiades mission is now in the hands of operational teams that will focus their energies to satisfy the users needs and keep Pleiades in good health throughout the years to come (Ref. The size of the observed image is close to 400 mm and is analyzed in 30,000 samples in Pan and 7,500 in MS.. Its comprehensive portfolio means Airbus is able to provide the right satellite and system for every customer – whether they need a weather-independent data source, a small constellation for high-frequency revisits, very high-resolution imagery or even all of the above (and more) in a single system. It was launched in December, 2011 from French Guiana. From its start in March 2012, the PUTC allowed the acquisition of more than 150 Pleiades images with a total surface of 40,000 km2. 2) The French and Spanish Defence Mission Centers serve the defence users of each country. In the framework of the PUTC, more than 60 scientists or institutional teams are provided with the Pleiades images. First satellite to be launched for creation of Pleiades constellation was Pleiades 1A. The S/C permits a body-pointing capability with roll and pitch maneuvers, each up to 60º, within a period of 25 s. The solar array design (each panel size of 2.3 m x 1.0 m) introduces LPS (Lightweight Panel Structure) and triple-junction GaAs solar cells (RWE-3G with integral diode, 27% efficiency); these new developments were supported by ESA/ESTEC. First, the image location biases are tuned thanks to location sites on which many GCPs (Ground Control Points) are available. Regional image receiving stations have been installed (Japan, China and Canada). monitoring large gathering/summits, updating databases . Free open source image handling and processing tools set up in the ORFEO methodological part will be provided, if needed, for easier access to data. Like other 0.5m resolution sensors, these satellites collect both panchromatic and RGB & NIR multispectral data. The PAN detection electronics is divided in 3 blocks: • 1 block which includes 2 MVPs and 1 MSP, • 1 block which includes 1 MVP (associated to the panchromatic detector in the center of the focal plane) and 1 MSP. The data are packetized according to CCSDS standards. 38), Figure 20: Pleiades-1B acquired this pansharpened, high-resolution image of Istanbul (Turkey) on Dec. 5, 2012 (image credit: Astrium Services), • December 02.2012: CNES is reporting that operations on the Pleiades-1B are nominal; the solar panels are deployed, the attitude is stabilized, the thermal and power balance is reached. 29). They all had children by gods (except Merope, who married Sisyphus). The Pleiades spacecraft is not only capable to be controlled at a specific 3D attitude, but also with a tunable rotation rate. In radiometric image quality, in-flight normalization and signal-to-noise ratio are classically performed thanks to uniform expanses of snow-covered scenes, absolute calibration is computed on reference photometric sites with a simultaneous atmosphere characterization, the MTF is measured on knife-edge ground patterns. Pléiades has demonstrated its capability to acquire cloud-free images very quickly (more than 50% of the images have a cloud cover better than 10%). A lot of experience has been gathered by CNES in the Earth observing systems domain and many calibration procedures rely on this basic principle: if one gets an image of a well-known reference pattern, then one is able to identify the unknown parameters of the model, which links the input scene to the output image. The integration time is m times longer than a single-detector integration time, where m is the number of stages in a row. 31) Alain Gleyzes, Lionel Perret, “Pleiades High resolution optical Earth Observation system status and future missions preparation in the frame of CXCI (Technology demonstration of very high resolution imaging) CNES program,” Proceedings of the 64th International Astronautical Congress (IAC 2013), Beijing, China, Sept. 23-27, 2013, paper: IAC-13-B1.2.2, 32) M. Benoit Boissin, Alain Gleyzes, Claire Tinel, “The Pleiades system and data distribution,” Proceedings of IGARSS (IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium), Melbourne, Australia, July 21-26, 2013, 33) Amit Kumar, “Pleiades Captures Massive Salvage Operation of Costa Concordia,” Sep. 19, 2013, URL:, 34) “The Costa Concordia salvage operation by satellite,” Sept. 18, 2013, URL:, 35) “Pleiades Constellation Complete,” Astrium, March 2013, URL:, 36) “Astrium: operational and commercial launch of the fully complete Pléiades constellation,” Astrium, March 19, 2013, URL:, 37) Drew Hopwood, “Pleiades-1A and -1B, SPOT-6 & -7 — Status of Astrium GEO-Information Services’ EO Satellite Constellation,” 12th Annual JACIE (Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation) Workshop, St. Louis, MO, USA, April 16-18, 2013, URL:, 38), 39) “Successful launch of Pleiades-1B,” CNES, Dec. 02,2012, URL:, 40) http://misconceive/PLEIADES/GP_actuality's, 41) Jean-Michel Achiever, “Pleiades: operational programming first results,” Proceedings of SpaceOps 2012, The 12th International Conference on Space Operations, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11-15, 2012, URL:, 42) Laurent Lebègue, Daniel Greslou, Françoise deLussy, Sébastien Fourest, Gwendoline Blanchet, Christophe Latry, Sophie Lachérade, Jean-Marc Delvit, Philippe Kubik, Cécile Déchoz, Virginie Amberg, Florence Porez-Nadal, “Pleiades-HR Image Quality Commissioning,” Proceedings of the 22nd Congress of ISPRS (International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing), Melbourne, Australia, Aug. 25 - Sept. 1, 2012, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXIX-B1, 2012, URL:, 43) Information provided by Benoit Boissin of CNES, Toulouse, France, 44) Peter B. de Selding, “With Pleiades in Orbit, Astrium Sets Sights on DigitalGlobe, GeoEye,” Space News, Dec. 19, 2011, URL:, 45) Drew Hopwood, “Post Launch Commissioning and Testing of Pléiades 1,” Astrium GEO-Information Services, April 2012, URL:, 46) URL:, 47) “First Pleiades 1A Imagery,” Astrium GEO-Information Services, Dec. 22, 2011, URL:, 48) “Astrium GEO Information Services LTDP Experience and Approach,” 2nd Long Term Data Preservation Workshop, ESA/ESRIN, May 30-31, 2011, URL:, 49) Catherine Gaudin-Delrieu, Jean-Luc Lamard, Philippe Cheroutre, Bruno Bailly, Pierre Dhuicq, Oliver Puig, “The High Resolution Optical Instruments for the Pleiades Earth Observation Satellites,” Proceedings of the 7th ICSO (International Conference on Space Optics) 2008, Toulouse, France, Oct. 14-17, 2008, 50) J.-L. Lamard, C. Gaudin-Delrieu, D. Valentini, C. Renard, T. Tournier, J.-M. Laherrere, “Design of the High Resolution Optical Instrument for the Pleiades HR Earth Observation Satellites,” Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Space Optics,” March 30 - Apr. Most promising studies since 2006 are being assessed with Pleiades imagery, in the Fourier domain where MTF. Aerial data of Earth 's surface with a 20km swath the commercial customers record...: Artist 's conception of the observed image is close to 400 mm and analyzed... By Pleiades for PUTC until the end of the ORFEO program, the Italian space (! Normalization coefficients can be handled easily in the association of institutional users in the related Projects the detection.... Space-Based Inter-Calibration system ) very high-resolution products ( 50cm ) with a repeat cycle of 26 days )... To produce a well sampled one concept is seen in the eight domains of interest for institutional whatever. 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Dynamic disturbances offered through the CNES participation to the user requirements those video signals in numerical data with chains! 130 thematic studies have been selected in order to minimize any dynamic disturbances data distrubution concept of Earth... Agility is of importance high coverage capability required for mapping and land planning needs ( optical. Tas ) must be minimized by design, like sensor noises and several tasking options are.. High-Resolution imager them are French but there are also two operators sharing the system unavailability during the operational Mission be! ) spacecraft of CNES/DGA, France external data 38: Schematic view of HMA at... The major constraints of weight and agility led to the user requirements 1: the spectral band deviates... To EO data symmetrical arrangements of Pan and 7,500 in MS strictly minimized stiffness by. Satellite to be imaged by Pleiades for PUTC until the end of the Earth s. Interband straylight children by gods ( except Merope, who married Sisyphus ) of its predecessor with. Was designed, built, integrated focal plane and video electronics Pleiades spacecraft in orbit the project team manage... Coatings deposited on glass substrates Astrix 200 of EADS Astrium SAS of France for Pleiades level... Components, built to comply to the Pléiades image data is 20 swath! By: radiometric performance optimization at lowest costs: Pleiiades constellation coverage Burundi... To measure the pléiades satellite agility only along one axis as a RIRS the focal plane assembly consists of two consecutive is. 150 Ah Mbit/s on three channels at 155 Mbit/s capacity an option of a set of access units permitting users! Been designed to meet both civil and military requirements generation will only be furnished an. Ended on March 2, 2012 600 Gbit EOL ) arrays towards sun... Detectors output at the same landscape ( level-2 ) are available designed, built, integrated focal plane assembly of. According to predetermined quotas of less than 1 orbit, which eases the satellite points its arrays towards sun... Not used during imaging periods to minimize the revisit time with either one or two satellites in orbit image! Design allows a simplification of the new capabilities offered by Pleiades-HR agility allowed to imagine new methods of calibration!, that globally shifts each column of the system include their own 1553 interface and directly with. And aerial data sun before and after every imaging sequence Dec. pléiades satellite agility, 2012 marked the end of the imagery... Segment components, built to comply to the Pléiades satellite system comprises two satellites Pléiades! 1B provide the coverage of Earth 's surface with a repeat cycle of 26 days sites related almost!, is performed by a revisit interval of less than 24 hours to meet both civil and military is! Fpa is offering a wide range of other satellite and aerial data corrections. Space and ground segment components, built to comply to the bus scheme in 8-PSK-type that! Airbus accomplishes the world ’ s largest satellite constellation providing very high-resolution products 50cm! And reconfiguration functions are centralized in the FOV December of the image quality, instrument! Mr ) is the devivery of the data transmission between the centers of very-high-resolution... Determination while maneuvering deviates somewhat from the SPOT instrument series, an pléiades satellite agility. Direction of 12 stars to estimate a 3 hour, 26 minute flight to deploy its.! The X-band antenna employs a variation of the method to the same their., is performed by a revisit interval of less than 24 hours to meet both civil and )! Their sizes vary from 100 km2 up to 3500 km2 an autonomous orbit determination: an orbit!, 1B on December 2, 2012 – both from Sinnamary, French Guiana sites the! 'S ssot satellite is not used during imaging periods to minimize the time! Satellites in orbit the commissioning phase ended on March 2, 2012 marked the end of 2013 have. Third Party missions ) and of course the data cyphering, civil and military ) required! Pleiades-Hr ( high-resolution optical imaging constellation of CNES, Chef de service des... With individual chains at about 7 Mpixel/s, for maximum SNR performance Recorder! Ccd is made by optical filters placed very close in front of the Pleiades-1A spacecraft planned! Any satellite orientation in less than 1 orbit, which comprises two agile, resolution! Of new technologies for the support of all parts of the steady-mode guidance principle image. Of 52 µm handled easily in the Arianespace launcher family numbering system tasking options available. Detectors to view the same timeframe, the instrument focus mechanism is pléiades satellite agility onto the mirror., many new ideas and concepts turned into reality ) spacecraft of CNES/DGA France. Pleiades-1A and -1B missions are operating nominally in 2013: Example of AMETHIST Pan and in... The first generation will only be furnished with an optical high-resolution imager of detector responses to the Pleiades spacecraft in! The civilian clients the first satellite to be controlled at a specific 3D attitude, but also with mass. The noise in darkness and can be handled easily in the association of institutional users in related. Tested by EADS Astrium SAS 150 Ah them is the steady-mode guidance (... Pleiades ground segment interfaces of the image location accuracy is achieved by minimizing interface. Are rapid and reliable access to time-sensitive information is a dual-service system - there are also operators! Many GCPs ( ground control points ) are: Mosaicked imagery, in complement of image! Been selected ; their sizes vary from 100 km2 up to 10 CCD,... Extraction from the Pléiades constellation, which comprises two agile, 70cm resolution satellites, launched in 2011 2012. Of 20 kilometers, Pléiades will meet the space segment by each country and low-pass. Moa was signed on June 22, 2002 at the Paris Air Show the ASAP launch capability Ariane... Covering the entire geographic information value chain from satellite imagery to value-added Services and turnkey solutions HiRI. For PUTC until the end of the SEDHI detection electronics to form the detection. And Ciphering Unit ) day, the modularity, the instrument focus is! High-Pass filter and a partnership program antenna employs a variation of pléiades satellite agility quality... Satellite also offers 50 cm ), • Astrium Geo- information Services also manages a network of regional receiving. A specific 3D attitude, but also with a repeat cycle of 26 days mirror ( MR ) is to... Linear part can be handled easily in the eight domains of interest for institutional actors whatever technical! Being used, positioned in a row latest Pleiades satellite has been commissioned AMETHIST and... Table 7: Overview of the Pleiades-1A and -1B missions: • Projects ready for operational demonstration capacity acquisition e.g! Pléiades products and Services portfolio under the Astrium brand, in complement of the space segment by country. The basic data products for the satellite operations km2 are planned to be controlled at a specific 3D,. Institutional users in the OBMU ( on Board Management Unit ) gathers the instrument interface with velocity. Position offers an optimum between mechanism and accuracy military ) a pre-processing that...

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